Electrical automation is a new discipline in the field of electrical information, but because it is closely related to people's daily life and industrial production, it develops very rapidly and is relatively mature now. It has become an important part of the high-tech industry, widely used in industry, agriculture, national defense and other fields, and is playing an increasingly important role in the national economy. Its tentacles extend to all walks of life, ranging from the design of a switch to the research of aerospace vehicles. Students in this major can engage in work in the fields of system operation, automatic control, power electronics technology, information processing, test technology, research and development, economic management, and electronic and computer technology applications related to electrical engineering. Engineering and technical personnel. There is a great demand for high-level talents in this field. It is estimated that with the entry of large foreign companies, there will be a big gap in this professional field, and it is very likely that the supply of talents will exceed the demand.
1. Professional characteristics of electrical automation
Control theory and power network theory are the basis of electrical engineering and automation, while power electronics technology and computer technology are its main technical means. It also includes research fields such as system analysis, system design, system development, system management and decision-making. There are also some characteristics of this major, that is, the combination of strong and weak electricity, the combination of electrical and electronic technology, and the combination of software and hardware. Ability is a "wide-caliber" specialty.
The electrical engineering and automation major is very attractive to candidates. It is a popular major. The admission score of the college entrance examination is often much higher than that of other majors. The main reasons for this situation are:
1.1 Employment is easy, the working environment is good, and the income is high;
1.2 The name is pleasant, and the professional content is attractive to students; social propaganda and public opinion orientation are beneficial to it. This professional direction has very good development prospects, and the research results are easier to transfer to real products, and the benefits are considerable. His creative research ideas have attracted many candidates, and this is indeed a good place to showcase their talents. However, in view of the current situation in China, candidates should pay attention to the following two points when applying for this major:
1.2.1 Give full consideration to your interests. Maybe I wasn't interested in this direction at first, but many people said yes, so I became "interested". This is very detrimental to future development, after all, interest is the best teacher.
1.2.2 Measure your overall quality. Electrical engineering and automation majors need to have a solid foundation in mathematics and physics, and a strong comprehensive ability in foreign languages to prepare for the ability to master and flexibly use professional knowledge in the future. Although there is a great demand for talents in this major, there are also many people to choose from. Without very strong comprehensive qualities, it is difficult to stand out from the crowd and achieve outstanding results. Perhaps this is unacceptable to many candidates with great ambitions.
Of course, the feasibility of the two points mentioned here is also related to the students' personal pursuits. If one's pursuit is limited to a better job, this major is indeed a good choice. However, if you want to make breakthrough contributions in technological innovation, you still have to build on your personal strength and hard work. Pie will never fall from the sky for no reason.
Due to the wide research scope of this major, good application prospects and relatively high professional quality of graduates, the employment situation is very good. China is now in great need of talents in this field. From a small family to a large society, they cannot do without the work of these professionals. Usually, after graduation, students can choose state-owned quality and technical supervision departments, research institutes, industrial and mining enterprises, etc.; they can also choose some foreign-funded and private enterprises, and the treatment is of course quite considerable. If students are capable enough and have accumulated good research results during their studies, they can start their own businesses and create their own sky. It should be pointed out that since foreign countries are ahead of us in this field of research, it is a good choice to go abroad for further study if you want to further develop and establish your leading position in this field in China.
2. The period of rapid development of electrical automation
The development of my country's electrical automation industry is very rapid, and many industries have begun to use automation control as an important equipment technology in production and a favorable guarantee for the expansion of productivity. From the automatic control and monitoring system, we can see the rapid development of science and technology. From any angle, we can see such problems, and they are very prominent in the automation electrical industry.
Generally speaking, when operating and using the electrical automation control system, it is necessary to record the accurate value, combine the quantitative change with the automatic control of the system, and promote the major development of the control equipment. In one industry, it will definitely integrate with another. In the industry, it is very important to advance the use and research of self-control systems, electrical technology systems, and computer systems in the industry.
At the beginning of the development of a series of electrical equipment, many developments are neutral, and many problems have been solved in the production process. From the slowdown of medical treatment and machinery, a very wide range of production scenarios has emerged, and it will be the future for electrical automation control. industry laid the foundations. When conducting product testing, it is necessary to explain relevant safety aspects, which will make people aware of some aspects.
In the use of medical equipment, in the manufacture and installation of automatically installed semiconductors and components, the development of today's electrical industry is still very rapid, and it has fundamentally started the development and preservation of the greatest strength, from the perspective of science and technology Advanced science and technology should be introduced, so that we can better carry out comprehensive development and learning, and use electrical automation control to an ideal standard.
3. Development status of electrical automation
3.1 The development frontier of electrical automation
my country's electrical automation major began to develop in the early 1950s. The country adjusted the major several times. However, due to the wide range of industries covered and the great applicability, the major is still full of vitality. All major colleges and universities across the country have set up this major one after another, and it has developed rapidly. The number of college students and postgraduates studying this major has increased rapidly, and the number of practitioners in the society has also increased rapidly. The number of undergraduates majoring in electrical automation in colleges and universities has also increased.
Due to the large demand for electrical automation professionals from all walks of life in the society, the relationship between supply and demand has risen with changes in demand. It is imminent to cultivate a group of high-end top technical personnel. The relevant national policies have been issued and encourage the healthy and rapid development of electrical automation majors in colleges and universities. As a result, the current situation of the development of electrical automation majors in colleges and universities in my country is good, and it belongs to a new technology industry major that is steadily rising and requires technical talents. There are more and more colleges and universities offering electrical automation majors, and more and more students are studying this major, and the electrical automation industry is also expanding more and more widely. Moreover, the demand for corresponding positions for electrical automation professionals is also increasing, and there will be more and more employees in the future. From the current point of view, the development of electrical automation will be more rapid.
3.2 Market development of electrical automation
On the one hand, at the present stage, there are many factories in the society, and the types of electrical equipment are diverse and complete. The demand for technicians and maintenance personnel is astonishing. At present, there is a shortage of elite talents in our society, and there are even fewer highly skilled professionals. Therefore, the electrical automation major has a very good and broad development prospect, and electrical automation professionals are also emerging in an endless stream. Cultivating batch after batch of high-end elite talents majoring in electrical automation is an important development topic for major universities.
On the other hand, a large number of scientific research talents in electrical automation also need to be cultivated. The research and development of many electrical products, especially cutting-edge scientific and technological products, requires a lot of scientific research talents with professional skills and innovative capabilities. Therefore, scientific research institutions have gradually been widely established throughout the country. Rising up, the strength of professional scientific research personnel is gradually growing. Therefore, the electrical automation professional market is developing rapidly. And it plays a pivotal role in the entire social and economic development, and the market development situation is broad.
4. Common equipment for electrical automation
4.1 Microcomputer protection device
The microcomputer protection device is a relay protection composed of a microcomputer. It is the development direction of the power system relay protection (it has been basically realized, and it still needs to be developed). It has high reliability, high selectivity, and high sensitivity. The hardware of the microcomputer protection device includes a microprocessor (single chip microcomputer) as the core, equipped with input and output channels, man-machine interface and communication interface, etc. The system is widely used in electric power, petrochemical, mining smelting, railway and civil construction. The hardware of the microcomputer is universal, but the performance and function of the protection are determined by the software.
4.1.2 Operating principle
The digital core of the microcomputer protection device is generally composed of CPU, memory, timer/counter, Watchdog and so on. At present, the mainstream of the digital core is the embedded microcontroller (MCU), which is commonly referred to as a single-chip microcomputer; the input and output channels include analog input channels (analog input conversion loops (convert the quantities measured by CT and PT into lower suitable Internal A/D conversion voltage, ±2.5V, ±5V or ±10V), low-pass filter and sampling, A/D conversion) and digital input and output channels (man-machine interface and various alarm signals, trip signals and electrical pulses, etc.).
4.2 DC screen
The DC screen is a new type of DC system with digital control, protection, management and measurement. The monitoring host part is highly integrated and adopts a single-board structure (All in one), which includes functions such as insulation monitoring, battery inspection, grounding line selection, battery activation, silicon chain voltage stabilization, and microcomputer central signal. The host is equipped with a large LCD touch screen, and various operating states and parameters are displayed in Chinese characters. The overall design is convenient and concise, and the man-machine interface is friendly, which is in line with user habits. The DC screen system provides powerful functions for remote detection and control, and has remote control, remote adjustment, telemetry, remote signaling functions and remote communication interfaces. Through the remote communication interface, the operating parameters of the DC power system can be obtained remotely, and the operating status and fixed values ??can also be set and modified through this interface to meet the requirements of power automation and power system unattended substations; equipped with standard RS232/485 serial Line interface and Ethernet interface, which can be easily incorporated into the power station automation system.
4.2.2 Working principle
The DC panel can set the parameters of each part of the system through the monitoring module. The module has the function of smoothly adjusting the output voltage and current, and has the function of battery charging temperature compensation. With multiple extended communication ports, it can be connected to a variety of external intelligent devices (such as battery testers, insulation monitoring devices, etc.).
The combination of modern power electronics and computer network technology provides support for "telemetry, remote control, remote signaling, and remote adjustment" of the power supply system, and realizes unattended operation.
Battery automatic management and protection, real-time automatic detection of battery terminal voltage, charging and discharging current, and intelligent control of battery floating charging, with sound and light alarms for battery overvoltage and undervoltage and charging overcurrent. The system adopts the monitoring device with built-in insulation monitoring and battery detection.