The line loss rate is a comprehensive core economic and technical index for power grid operating companies, and strengthening line loss management is a long-term strategic task and systematic project for power grid operating companies. Although the line loss management is complicated, the main factors affecting the line loss rate can be classified according to five aspects, namely: measurement and line loss "four points" management, power grid and operation management, marketing management, statistics and analysis of index management, Line loss management system, etc., this paper attempts to conduct a preliminary discussion and analysis.
1. Influencing factors of line loss management
Strengthening measurement management and establishing a complete line loss "four points" management system are the basis for line loss management. Focus on the following four areas:
1.1 Basic measurement management
To improve various measurement management systems, the key point is to establish and improve various measurement basic data, carry out the value transmission work of measurement standards at all levels in strict accordance with standards, and carry out the design, installation, commissioning, periodic verification and random inspection of various electric energy meters according to regulations and rotation, strengthen the management of metering clamps and seals, and carry out the secondary pressure drop test of metering circuit PT to prevent various metering errors.
1.2 Management of gateway table
It is necessary to strengthen the management of metering gateway meters, ensure standard installation, correct wiring, sufficient accuracy, qualified error, reasonable configuration, regular inspection, and timely replacement.
1.3 Statistics and analysis of bus power imbalance
Carrying out the statistics and analysis of the unbalance rate of bus power is an important means to test whether the line loss measurement system is accurate. 220kV and above voltage level bus power imbalance rate should not be greater than ± 1%; 110kV and below voltage level bus power imbalance rate should not be greater than ± 2%.
1.4 Management of user metering devices
It is necessary to ensure that the user uses a qualified metering device, the metering range is correct, the capacity and CT ratio configuration are reasonable, the wiring is correct and sealed, and periodic verification and fault replacement are carried out in time.
2. Power grid and operation management of four-point line loss management
Reasonable planning and construction of power grids, and economic operation of power grids are the main measures to reduce technical line losses. Focus on the following three aspects:
2.1 Equipment configuration and grid transformation
It is necessary to scientifically formulate power grid planning, rationally allocate power transmission and transformation equipment, and optimize design schemes through technical and economic comparisons to ensure the quality of power grid construction. Reasonably select transformers and transmission lines, prohibit eliminated high-energy-consuming power transmission and transformation equipment from entering the power grid, and strengthen the configuration of power grids and user reactive power compensation equipment. Urban and rural public transformers should follow the requirements of being close to the load center, small capacity, densely distributed, and short radius to set.
The transformation of the power grid shall be carried out step by step. For the transformation of the low-voltage station area and the user's home line, it is necessary to minimize the impact of the three-phase load imbalance, and cooperate with the marketing department's basic information cleaning of the marketing information system.
2.2 Economic operation of power grid
Strengthen the economic dispatch of the power grid, adjust the operation mode in a timely manner according to the change of the grid power flow, and do a good job in transformer switching, voltage adjustment, and reactive equipment switching on the premise of ensuring system safety and stability.
2.3 Self-consumption management
Strengthen the management of power enterprises' self-consumption of electricity, and strictly install meters to measure and charge for electricity other than normal production electricity.
3. Marketing management of four-point line loss management
Strengthening marketing management is the main measure to reduce management line loss. Focus on the following six aspects:
3.1 Meter reading management
It is necessary to prepare meter reading books according to the station area, arrange the meter reading schedule according to the requirement that the proportion of electricity read at the end of the month is more than 75%, conscientiously implement the registration system for meter reading skills, strictly follow the meter reading schedule, and strengthen the supervision of meter reading at the gateway. manage. Follow-up meter reading and regular rotation of meter readers should be implemented to supervise the quality of meter reading. For IC card users, meter reading should be in place according to regulations to prevent the occurrence of estimated, wrong, and missing readings.
3.2 Submission management
It is necessary to reasonably determine the power supply plan, carefully review the user's transformer capacity, number, voltage level, power supply, and measurement method, configure the measurement transformation ratio and measurement accuracy according to regulations, urge users to use energy-saving electrical equipment, and do a good job of user reactive power according to regulations. management.
3.3 Business Change Management
Carry out business changes in strict accordance with the management authority and work flow, conscientiously implement the business work order registration system, and implement the system that the business work order has the joint signature of the installation personnel and the user.
3.4 Accounting and auditing
Strictly implement the system of independent supervision and restriction of meter reading, accounting, and charging positions, strengthen marketing analysis and marketing inspection, achieve timely response to index dynamics, and strengthen auditing of business changes.
3.5 Basic information cleaning
Do a good job in cleaning up the basic information of users in the marketing information system, and do a good job in cleaning up the basic data of line loss statistics. Five unification.
3.6 Electricity inspection
It is necessary to establish and improve a long-term mechanism for anti-stealing electricity, increase the investment in anti-stealing transformation and anti-stealing technology, funds and personnel, strengthen the efforts to crack down on electricity theft according to law, re-investigate and deal with internal and external collusion and stealing behaviors, improve reporting and rewarding measures, and effectively Ensure the personal safety of electricity inspectors, and continuously improve the anti-stealing capabilities of power supply companies.
4. Quadruple management of line loss - statistics and analysis of index management
Doing a good job in the statistics and analysis of line loss index management is an important basis for line loss management decision-making. Focus on the following three aspects:
4.1 Formulation and distribution of line loss indicators
It is necessary to carry out the calculation of theoretical line loss carefully, adopt the "revenue increase benefit method" to comprehensively consider the interaction of line loss and the average price of electricity sales, and reasonably formulate and issue line loss plan indicators.
4.2 Statistics and analysis of line loss indicators
It is necessary to conduct in-depth statistics and dynamic analysis of comprehensive line loss indicators and small line loss assessment indicators, timely correct and strictly investigate and deal with fraudulent behavior in line loss statistics.
4.3 Application of modern management methods
It is necessary to pay attention to the application of advanced management methods and modern management methods to improve the level of line loss management, reduce the work intensity of the majority of line loss management personnel, and improve the pertinence and effect of line loss management.
5. Line loss four points management system
Strict implementation of the line loss management system is the fundamental guarantee for the effectiveness of line loss management. The focus should be on the following aspects: first, to establish and improve the organizational structure of line loss management; second, to clarify the job responsibilities of relevant staff, especially the job responsibilities of leaders at all levels; The rationality of the salary incentive measures should fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the cadres and workers, and the fourth is to strictly implement various reward and punishment measures.
6. The application and significance of four-point line loss management
The four-divided line loss management refers to a comprehensive loss reduction management method for the power grid under its jurisdiction, including voltage division, division, line loss management, and sub-area line loss management. In fact, the so-called four-point management is mainly to count and analyze the line loss rate according to four statistical methods.
As the name suggests, voltage division management is to statistically analyze the line loss rate according to the voltage level. For example, a company has 4 voltage levels, namely 110kV, 35kV, 10kV and 0.4kV; zoning management is mainly divided according to administrative regions, because the company has 15 ready-made power stations, which are divided into 15 districts for management; sub-line management Mainly for the management of 10kV public lines, the company currently has 62 10kV public lines; the sub-area management is aimed at the management of public distribution transformers, and the company currently has more than 900 public distribution transformers.
Since the power supply line loss rate is a comprehensive technical and economic index that reflects the production technology level and management level of the power supply enterprise, it will directly reflect the professional technology and management level of the power supply enterprise. Therefore, to improve the economic benefits of power supply enterprises, the first task is to find ways to reduce the loss rate of power supply lines.
In order to do a good job in line loss management, the majority of cadres and workers have made great efforts and achieved remarkable results. At the same time, we have accumulated and summarized a wealth of practical experience over the years. The relevant management system has been relatively complete, but the reason why the line loss management is difficult, The grassroots generally feel that it is difficult to complete the line loss plan indicators. This is because the above five factors of line loss management are an interrelated system. With the increasingly refined management, the potential for loss reduction is gradually tapped. At the same time, the interaction of the five factors is inevitable There will be some dissonance and stagnation.
The core issue of current line loss management is the distortion of line loss statistical indicators. It is manifested in: First, the "four-point" assessment system for line loss of grass-roots power supply units has not been fully established, especially the insufficient configuration of gate meters in grass-roots business stations and platforms is still relatively common; second, a small number of units have falsified in the statistics of line loss indicators Behavior is not cured.
From a deeper analysis point of view, it is necessary for managers at all levels to re-examine the rationality of various management systems and salary incentives in accordance with the requirements of building a "harmonious society", and fully mobilize the enthusiasm of grassroots cadres and workers.