Integrated automation is widely used in automated workshops and automatic factories composed of electronic computers, intelligent robots, automatic control systems, automatic handling machines, automated warehouses, quality control systems, and automatic management systems. The integrated automation system can strengthen the adaptability of the production system to market dynamics, greatly improve the utilization rate of equipment and the investment benefits of enterprises, and can avoid losses caused by subjective factors.
1. System composition of integrated automation
The main components of a general integrated automation system are: computer-aided design system, computer-aided manufacturing system, production management system, transaction management system and central database.
Modern integrated automation is developing towards computer integrated manufacturing system. This is a computer optimization and computer control system including all links from product planning, design, manufacturing, inspection to packaging, transportation, sales and market analysis. This system attaches great importance to the organic combination of various production links, emphasizes the smooth and rapid processing of information, and requires the entire production system to have a high degree of flexibility.
2. The basic method of integrated automation
The basic method of integrated automation varies with different production objects and production processes. There can also be large variations between different factories within the same industry. For example, the 3F-FA system is a integrated automation system for a machine tool factory, consisting of three subsystems. The control within each system is carried out in a decentralized manner, and the information of each subsystem is managed centrally by the operation management system. The entire system simplifies the control of machines and distributes loads through the decentralization of control and centralization of management, and effectively utilizes information to become a flexible automation system (see flexible manufacturing system).
2.1 Machining unit: It is composed of computer-controlled CNC machine tools, robots, monitors, dimension checkers and other automatic machines and unit controllers.
2.2 Warehouse handling system: It consists of an automatic warehouse, an unmanned van, and a transport pallet that transfers blanks between the processing unit and the unmanned van.
2.3 Operation management system: It is used to control the operation of the processing unit, and can monitor the operation status and process progress of this unit.
3. Integrated automation system
The integrated automation system is to combine and optimize the functions of the secondary equipment of the substation (including instruments, signal systems, relay protection, automatic devices and telecontrol devices), using advanced computer technology, modern electronic technology and communication equipment and Signal processing technology realizes integrated automation functions such as automatic monitoring, measurement, automatic control and microcomputer protection of the main equipment of the whole substation and power transmission and distribution lines, and communication with dispatching.
4. Characteristics of integrated automation system
Generally speaking, there are four points: integrated functions, computerized structure, screen-based operation monitoring, and intelligent operation management. Advantages of integrated automation:
4.1 Improve the quality of power supply and increase the voltage qualification rate;
4.2 Improve the safety, reliability and operation level of the substation;
4.3 Improve the operation and management level of the power system;
4.4 Reduce maintenance workload;
4.5 Realize unattended substation.
5. Basic functions of integrated automation system
Specifically, there are the following five subsystems:
5.1 Functions of the Monitoring Subsystem
5.1.1 Data collection;
5.1.2 Sequence of events record;
5.1.3 Fault record, fault recording and ranging;
5.1.4 Operation control function;
5.1.5 Safety monitoring function;
5.1.6 Man-machine contact function;
5.1.7 Print function;
5.1.8 Data processing and recording functions;
5.1.9 Harmonic analysis and monitoring;
5.2 Functions of Microcomputer Protection Subsystem
5.3 Voltage and reactive power integrated control subsystem
5.4 Functions of the low cycle load shedding subsystem
5.5 Functions of the backup power automatic switching control subsystem
6. Structural form of integrated automation system
6.1 Centralized structure
The centralized structure is based on the scale of the substation, and the corresponding capacity of the centralized protection device, monitoring host and data acquisition system is configured. They are installed in the central control room.
This method is compact in structure, small in size and low in cost, especially for 35kV or smaller-scale substations, and can fulfill various requirements of integrated automatic substations.
The disadvantage is that the functions of each machine are relatively concentrated, and once the machine fails, it will have a greater impact, so it is best to use the dual-machine parallel operation mode. The amount of software is large, and system debugging is troublesome. The configuration is not flexible, and the software and hardware need to be changed for different main junction lines or substations of different scales.
6.2 Hierarchical distributed structure
Hierarchical distributed system architecture (more commonly used now): It is a multi-CPU architecture, and each layer performs different functions. Each layer consists of different devices or different subsystems. It is generally divided into three layers: substation layer, unit layer, and equipment layer.
Among them: the equipment layer refers to the main equipment in the station, transformers, circuit breakers, isolating switches and auxiliary contacts, current and voltage transformers. The unit layer is divided by breaker intervals, with measurement, control and protection components. The substation layer includes a total station monitoring host and a telecontrol communication machine.
It can be further divided into: centralized group screen type, combination of decentralized and centralized type.
The characteristics of hierarchical distribution: the relay protection is relatively independent, and has the communication function with the system control center, and the modular structure, so the reliability is high. Its advantage is that it is convenient for design, installation, commissioning and management. Especially suitable for the renovation of old stations.
Structural form combining hierarchical distribution and centralization: according to each power grid component (one outgoing line, one transformer, etc.) as an object, it integrates measurement, protection and control, and is designed in one chassis. Installed on each switch cabinet. They are managed and exchanged by the monitoring host through the network. However, the main transformer and high-voltage line protection devices are still centralized and installed in the control room. Therefore, it is called the structure combining distribution and concentration, which is the main structural form of the current integrated automation system. Its characteristics are:
6.2.1 The 10-35KV feeder protection adopts a decentralized structure and is installed locally to save control cables. Exchange information with the protection management machine through the field bus.
6.2.2 Centralized installation of important protection in the control room is beneficial to its reliability.
6.2.3 Other automatic devices (low-cycle load shedding, standby automatic switching, reactive power integrated control device) adopt centralized group screens.
6.2.4 Reduce cables and reduce floor space.
6.2.5 Flexible configuration and convenient maintenance.
7. Classification of integrated automation systems
7.1 Substation Integrated Automation System
Substation integrated automation system is to use computer technology, modern electronic technology, communication technology and information processing technology to realize the secondary equipment of substation (including relay protection, control, measurement, signal, fault recording, automatic device and telecontrol device, etc.) It is a integrated automation system that monitors, measures, controls and coordinates the operation of all equipment in the substation by recombining and optimizing the design. Through the exchange of information and data sharing among the various devices in the substation integrated automation system, the substation operation monitoring and control tasks are completed. The substation integrated automation replaces the conventional secondary equipment of the substation and simplifies the secondary wiring of the substation. Substation integrated automation is an important technical measure to improve the safe and stable operation of substations, reduce operation and maintenance costs, improve economic benefits, and provide users with high-quality electric energy. The integration of functions is its biggest feature different from conventional substations. It is based on computer technology, uses data communication as a means, and aims at information sharing.
7.2 Microcomputer integrated automation system
The microcomputer integrated automation system also adopts a distributed structure, including monitoring background software, local monitoring PCs, telecontrol communication interfaces, engineer station PCs for professional management, and special equipment and network equipment. The substation layer automation system completes the whole station detection function through configuration, comprehensively provides operating data such as electric power and non-electric power of lines and main equipment, completes the control of transformers, circuit breakers and other equipment, and has protection information recording and analysis, operation Reports, fault recording and other functions.
The microcomputer integrated automation system is a platform-level monitoring software system based on the requirements of IEC61968 and IEC61970 component architecture standards (SCADA/EMS). It adopts object-oriented and interface-oriented layered distributed architecture, adopts the design idea of communication plug-in, and is composed of COM, DCOM, plug-in DLL combined with ACE and TAO, which is a software monitoring platform that does not depend on the monitoring unit (hardware platform). . Combined with the monitoring unit, it can complete the collection of remote signaling and remote measurement, and the distribution and execution of remote control and remote adjustment. In this way, the collection and calculation of data such as bus voltage, main transformer temperature, frequency, circuit breaker position, knife switch, handcart position, protection action signal, active power and reactive power can be completed, and at the same time, it can provide sound and light alarm for protection action, fault Screen positioning, SOE alarm or reminder, operation report printing, historical data storage, query and analysis, power five-proof lockout, telecontrol interface, communication configuration, monitoring screen configuration, operation log storage and query, etc.