Power grid dispatch management refers to the management of power grid production and operation, power grid dispatching system and personnel job activities by power grid dispatching agencies in accordance with relevant regulations in order to ensure safe, high-quality, and economical operation of the power grid. It generally includes dispatching operation management, dispatching plan management, relay protection and safety automatic device management, power grid dispatching automation management, power communication management, hydropower plant reservoir dispatching management, power system personnel training management, etc.
1. Tasks of power grid dispatch management
The task of power grid dispatching management is to organize, command, guide and coordinate the operation of the power grid to ensure the realization of the following basic tasks:
1.1 Give full play to the capacity of the internal power generation and power supply equipment of the grid, and meet the electricity demand of the grid in a planned way.
1.2 Make the power grid operate continuously, stably and normally in accordance with relevant regulations, and ensure the reliability of power supply.
1.3 Make the quality indicators (frequency, voltage and harmonic components, etc.) of the power supply of the power grid meet the standards stipulated by the state.
1.4 According to the actual situation of the power grid, make full and reasonable use of primary energy, so that the whole network can operate under the condition of the lowest power supply cost or the lowest power generation energy consumption rate and network loss.
1.5 In accordance with relevant contracts or agreements, protect the legitimate rights and interests of power generation, power supply, and electricity consumption.
In my country, the power grid operation implements the principle of unified scheduling and hierarchical management. The power grid dispatching organization is the organization, command, guidance and coordination organization of the power grid operation, and the dispatching organizations at all levels are directly led by the power grid management department at the same level. The dispatching organization is not only the production and operation unit, but also the functional organization of the power grid management department, which exercises the dispatching power in the power grid operation on behalf of the power grid management department at the same level. Power grid dispatching agencies are divided into five levels, which are: national grid dispatching agencies, cross-province, autonomous region, and municipality-level grid dispatching agencies, provincial, autonomous region, and municipal-level grid dispatching agencies, provincial-level municipal grid dispatching agencies, and county-level grid dispatching agencies. Dispatch agencies at all levels are superior and subordinate in power grid dispatching activities, and lower-level dispatching agencies must obey the dispatching of superior dispatching agencies.
2. Main contents of power grid dispatching management
2.1 Compilation of grid system operation plan.
2.2 Grid system operation control.
2.3 Power grid system operation analysis.
2.4 Operation and management of relay protection, communication and dispatching automation equipment.
2.5 Professional management such as preparation of regulations and personnel training.
3. Basic principles of power grid dispatch management
3.1 The principle of unified scheduling and hierarchical management.
Article 4 of the "Regulations on the Management of Power Grid Dispatch" clearly states that unified scheduling and hierarchical management are implemented in the operation of the power grid. The two are an organic whole. The unified scheduling is based on hierarchical management. To ensure the safe, reliable, high-quality and economical operation of the power grid, to ensure the orderly power supply of the whole society, and to maintain the public welfare of the society.
3.2 The principle of power generation and consumption according to the dispatch plan.
In order to make overall arrangements for power supply, rationally allocate power resources, and optimize the overall interests of the whole society, Article 13 of the "Regulations on the Administration of Power Grid Dispatching" puts forward clear requirements for power generation and power consumption for power grid dispatching agencies, power plants/substations, and power users.
3.3 On-duty dispatchers shall perform their duties under the principle of legal protection.
3.4 The principle that scheduling instructions are mandatory.
Dispatching instructions have coercive force, so as to ensure smooth and effective dispatching and command, to deal with power grid accidents in time, and to ensure safe, high-quality and economical operation of the power grid.
3.5 The overall interests of the power grid should be maintained, combined with the principle of protecting the legitimate rights and interests of relevant units and power users.
3.6 It should meet the requirements of the socialist market economy and the principle of objective laws of power grid operation.
4. Mode of power grid dispatching management
Power grids have different dispatch management modes, mainly including planned power generation production mode, power generation bidding on-grid production mode and energy-saving power generation dispatching production mode.
4.1 Planned power generation production mode
The planned power generation production mode is a traditional scheduling mode, which is mainly dispatched according to the plan. Usually the plan is divided into annual plan, monthly plan and daily plan. The monthly plan is the result of the breakdown of the annual plan. The preparation of the annual power generation plan is mainly issued by the government to various units according to the type of the unit, and the annual utilization hours of the units are determined. Usually, the annual utilization hours of the same type of units are roughly the same, and then according to the actual needs of the power load, the same type of units are guaranteed. The units were completed in roughly equal proportions. The daily plan is mainly prepared based on the slight increase rate of coal consumption of each power generation enterprise or unit, and based on the principle of the lowest coal consumption of the entire network.
4.2 Online production mode of power generation bidding
The bidding for on-grid power generation mode is carried out on the basis of separating the plant from the grid. The so-called separation of power plants and grids means that the power plants are separated from the power companies and become a relatively independent enterprise. The power companies are only responsible for the operation and maintenance of the power grid. The competitive price grid-connected power generation mode means that the amount of electricity generated by a power generation company depends entirely on the competition results of the electricity prices of each power plant. Up to the number of units, that is, the quotation determines the power output of the power generation company.
4.3 Energy-saving power generation scheduling production mode
Energy-saving power generation scheduling refers to the priority dispatching of renewable power generation resources in accordance with the principles of energy saving and economy under the premise of ensuring a reliable supply of electricity, and the fossil power generation resources are called in order according to the energy consumption and pollutant emission levels of the units in order from low to high. Minimize energy, resource consumption and pollutant emissions.
5. The system of power grid dispatching management
The scheduling management system is divided into two copy modes: unified scheduling and joint scheduling. Usually, the unified power grid adopts unified dispatch, while the combined power grid adopts joint dispatch.
5.1 Unified scheduling
Scheduling of load balance of the entire electric power system, distribution of power plant output, maintenance arrangement of power generation and power supply equipment, power quality adjustment, and safe and economical operation. The dispatching principle is that each component of the system obeys the best interests of the entire power system, so that the power system can achieve safe, high-quality, and economical operation.
5.2 Joint Scheduling
The scheduling of the interconnected power system according to the agreement signed between them is also called contract scheduling. Each power system that makes up the interconnected power system implements independent economic accounting, implements unified scheduling within the system, and implements joint scheduling among various power systems outside the system. The interconnected power systems exchange power and electricity, support the enemy, and coordinate safety rules, etc., according to pre-established agreements or through temporary negotiations. All dispatching agencies participating in the interconnected power system are equal to each other.